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Anaximenes flourished BC, d. Heraclitus c. Empedocles c. All of these notions had deep philosophical problems. Aristotle — BC was the first to put the conception on a sound philosophical basis, which he did in his natural philosophy, especially in Physics book I. Nevertheless, these elements are not basic in Aristotle's mind. Rather they, like everything else in the visible world, are composed of the basic principles matter and form. For my definition of matter is just this—the primary substratum of each thing, from which it comes to be without qualification, and which persists in the result.

In other words, in contrast to the early modern conception of matter as simply occupying space, matter for Aristotle is definitionally linked to process or change: matter is what underlies a change of substance. For example, a horse eats grass: the horse changes the grass into itself; the grass as such does not persist in the horse, but some aspect of it—its matter—does. The matter is not specifically described e. Matter in this understanding does not exist independently i. It can be helpful to conceive of the relationship of matter and form as very similar to that between parts and whole.

For Aristotle, matter as such can only receive actuality from form; it has no activity or actuality in itself, similar to the way that parts as such only have their existence in a whole otherwise they would be independent wholes. He was primarily a geometer. Instead of, like Aristotle, deducing the existence of matter from the physical reality of change, Descartes arbitrarily postulated matter to be an abstract, mathematical substance that occupies space:. So, extension in length, breadth, and depth, constitutes the nature of bodily substance; and thought constitutes the nature of thinking substance.

And everything else attributable to body presupposes extension, and is only a mode of extended. For Descartes, matter has only the property of extension, so its only activity aside from locomotion is to exclude other bodies: [70] this is the mechanical philosophy. Descartes makes an absolute distinction between mind, which he defines as unextended, thinking substance, and matter, which he defines as unthinking, extended substance.

In short, Aristotle defines matter roughly speaking as what things are actually made of with a potential independent existence , but Descartes elevates matter to an actual independent thing in itself. The continuity and difference between Descartes' and Aristotle's conceptions is noteworthy. In both conceptions, matter is passive or inert. In the respective conceptions matter has different relationships to intelligence.

For Aristotle, matter and intelligence form exist together in an interdependent relationship, whereas for Descartes, matter and intelligence mind are definitionally opposed, independent substances.

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Descartes' justification for restricting the inherent qualities of matter to extension is its permanence, but his real criterion is not permanence which equally applied to color and resistance , but his desire to use geometry to explain all material properties. Isaac Newton — inherited Descartes' mechanical conception of matter.

In the third of his "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy", Newton lists the universal qualities of matter as "extension, hardness, impenetrability, mobility, and inertia". Like Descartes, Newton rejected the essential nature of secondary qualities. Newton developed Descartes' notion of matter by restoring to matter intrinsic properties in addition to extension at least on a limited basis , such as mass. Newton's use of gravitational force, which worked "at a distance", effectively repudiated Descartes' mechanics, in which interactions happened exclusively by contact.

Though Newton's gravity would seem to be a power of bodies, Newton himself did not admit it to be an essential property of matter. Carrying the logic forward more consistently, Joseph Priestley — argued that corporeal properties transcend contact mechanics: chemical properties require the capacity for attraction. Since Priestley's time, there has been a massive expansion in knowledge of the constituents of the material world viz. Rather the question has been set aside.


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  • The Early Atom.

Noam Chomsky born summarizes the situation that has prevailed since that time:. What is the concept of body that finally emerged? Any intelligible theory that offers genuine explanations and that can be assimilated to the core notions of physics becomes part of the theory of the material world, part of our account of body. If we have such a theory in some domain, we seek to assimilate it to the core notions of physics, perhaps modifying these notions as we carry out this enterprise.

So matter is whatever physics studies and the object of study of physics is matter: there is no independent general definition of matter, apart from its fitting into the methodology of measurement and controlled experimentation.

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In sum, the boundaries between what constitutes matter and everything else remains as vague as the demarcation problem of delimiting science from everything else. In the 19th century, following the development of the periodic table , and of atomic theory , atoms were seen as being the fundamental constituents of matter; atoms formed molecules and compounds.

The common definition in terms of occupying space and having mass is in contrast with most physical and chemical definitions of matter, which rely instead upon its structure and upon attributes not necessarily related to volume and mass. At the turn of the nineteenth century, the knowledge of matter began a rapid evolution.

The Discovery of the Parts of the Atom

Aspects of the Newtonian view still held sway. James Clerk Maxwell discussed matter in his work Matter and Motion. However, the Newtonian picture was not the whole story. In the 19th century, the term "matter" was actively discussed by a host of scientists and philosophers, and a brief outline can be found in Levere. Three divisions of matter are recognized in science: masses, molecules and atoms.

A Mass of matter is any portion of matter appreciable by the senses. A Molecule is the smallest particle of matter into which a body can be divided without losing its identity. An Atom is a still smaller particle produced by division of a molecule. Rather than simply having the attributes of mass and occupying space, matter was held to have chemical and electrical properties. In the famous physicist J. Thomson — wrote about the "constitution of matter" and was concerned with the possible connection between matter and electrical charge.

The Early Atom

There is an entire literature concerning the "structure of matter", ranging from the "electrical structure" in the early 20th century, [86] to the more recent "quark structure of matter", introduced today with the remark: Understanding the quark structure of matter has been one of the most important advances in contemporary physics. In the late 19th century with the discovery of the electron , and in the early 20th century, with the discovery of the atomic nucleus , and the birth of particle physics , matter was seen as made up of electrons, protons and neutrons interacting to form atoms.

Today, we know that even protons and neutrons are not indivisible, they can be divided into quarks , while electrons are part of a particle family called leptons.


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Both quarks and leptons are elementary particles , and are currently seen as being the fundamental constituents of matter. These quarks and leptons interact through four fundamental forces : gravity , electromagnetism , weak interactions , and strong interactions. The Standard Model of particle physics is currently the best explanation for all of physics, but despite decades of efforts, gravity cannot yet be accounted for at the quantum level; it is only described by classical physics see quantum gravity and graviton. As one consequence, mass and energy which cannot be created or destroyed cannot always be related to matter which can be created out of non-matter particles such as photons, or even out of pure energy, such as kinetic energy.

Force carriers are usually not considered matter: the carriers of the electric force photons possess energy see Planck relation and the carriers of the weak force W and Z bosons are massive, but neither are considered matter either.

The modern conception of matter has been refined many times in history, in light of the improvement in knowledge of just what the basic building blocks are, and in how they interact. The term "matter" is used throughout physics in a bewildering variety of contexts: for example, one refers to " condensed matter physics ", [95] "elementary matter", [96] " partonic " matter, " dark " matter, " anti "-matter, " strange " matter, and " nuclear " matter.

The history of the concept of matter is a history of the fundamental length scales used to define matter.

Physics of Atoms and Molecules

Different building blocks apply depending upon whether one defines matter on an atomic or elementary particle level. One may use a definition that matter is atoms, or that matter is hadrons , or that matter is leptons and quarks depending upon the scale at which one wishes to define matter. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

CBSE Class 12 Physics 12 -- Atoms -- Full Chapter -- By Shiksha House

Substance that has mass and volume. This article is about the concept in the physical sciences. For other uses, see Matter disambiguation.

Electron Scattering

Main article: Quark. Main article: Baryon. Main article: Degenerate matter. Main article: Strange matter. Main article: Lepton. Main article: Phase matter. See also: Phase diagram and State of matter. Main article: Antimatter. Baryon asymmetry. Why is there far more matter than antimatter in the observable universe? See also: Galaxy formation and evolution and Dark matter halo. Main article: Dark energy. Main article: Exotic matter.

Penrose Saunders; H. Brown eds. The Philosophy of Vacuum. Oxford University Press.