Assessments are usually based on a set of criteria and indicators developed by scientists and interested stakeholders. Repeated assessments should not be confused with monitoring. Inventory is an enumeration or qualitative description of elements of the system valued by management or society. It provides a database for further stratification and investigation of the resource.
Repeated inventories may or may not be a kind of monitoring. Inventories may serve as a database for classification. Ecological classification.
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Ecological classification is usually based on the structure of the vegetation, because that reflects the potential mix of life forms of plants, composition of the plant matrix, and potential productivity of the site. Within a land management resource area, sites with similar soils, relief and exposure can be expected to have similar production potential and respond in a similar way to environment and human induced uses.
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Often classification is displayed as maps or electronically stored in a GIS format. General classification based on correlation of vegetation to soils, relief, exposure, depth to water, etc. The range site.
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Classification of vegetation within a range site that represent different seral states. Elements of the system plants, animals, soil particles, microbes, water, etc have attributes length, width, density, volume, color, hue, odor, etc that can be measured or indexed. Sometimes we want to know if things of value change as a result of a use or practice. Since it is impossible to measure every individual of each element of the system, samples that represent the population of elements are measured at repeated intervals in time.
That is one form of monitoring.
Chapter 3 — Global Warming of ºC
Monitoring a. Changes in elements in the system of value to societies or management. Measurements made on temporal scales of years to decades. Monitoring indicators of change based on relationship between the indicator and element of interest. Monitoring indicators of response of the system to a use or practice. On determining proper numbers. Determining initial stocking rates.
Forage acre factors iii. The known relationship between stocking rate demand and output per unit area is useful at tactical levels of decision making seasonal temporal scales. Stocking rate is expressed as demand AUM per acre or per ton or the reciprocal. The known relationship between grazing pressure or herbage allowance is useful on operational scales of decision making daily to weekly temporal scales. Herbage allowance is expressed as lb of desirable, available forage per demand unit usually AUD.
Grazing pressure is the reciprocal of herbage allowance. Harvest efficiency ecological efficiency is the reciprocal of herbage allowance expressed as multiples of intake. Strategies for dealing with environmental uncertainty a. At the tactical level of decision making, the manager might make a judgement about desired sex ratios or the proportion of the population herd composed of producing vs disposable animals.
At the operational level of decision making, the manger adjusts numbers based on projected food accumulation rates and projected end-of-season use. Multiple Uses of Rangeland Resources — Decision making in complex biological and social environments. Review of major uses.
Ecosystem: It’s Structure and Functions (With Diagram)
Review of intrinsic values and cultural traditions. Conflict management and other collaborative management processes VIII. Rangeland ecosystem conversion, restoration, development and improvement — tools to manage succession. Conversion of natural rangeland ecosystems 1.
Many rangeland ecosystems have been converted to production of monocultures -agronomic crops. Society has deemed that a higher use of the land in response to food security. Or, non-native plants have been introduced into natural stands, e. In some cases the natural vegetation has been removed or drastically disturbed by agriculture.
Re-colonization is facilitated by preparing a seedbed and mechanically distributing a seed mix that mimics the potential vegetation on that site.
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Selective removal of unwanted or non-native plants with herbicides or biological controls C. Improvement for a specific use or to provide specific habitat — assume an ecosystem functioning within the range of natural variability. Change soil nutrient status a. Planned disturbance, natural or mechanical b. Fire c. Modify species performance and equity position of target species in the stand by selectively allowing maximum ecological expression.
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